Notifications
Sign Up Sign In
Q&A

What is the Arabic "praise/censure grammar" (e.g. !ياله من رجل رائع) called in Arabic?

+5
−0

I'm trying to edit this question at Chinese Stack Exchange: Does Chinese have an equivalent to Arabic-style praising grammar (translates to 褒贬句)?. The user originally wrote:

In Arabic we have a certain [grammar] structure that is called 褒贬法,for example: will translate it to chinese.

褒贬法 means something like "praise/censure grammar"; I'd like to edit the question to include the precise grammar term in Arabic. She gives the example:

!ياله من رجل رائع

Google Translate says it says "What a wonderful man".

Question: What is Arabic "praise/censure grammar" called in Arabic?

Why should this post be closed?

0 comments

1 answer

+2
−0

ياله من رجل رائع

Grammatical classification

In Arabic grammar this falls under the category of التَعَجُّب (at-T'ajjub) amazement as if we look grammatically deeper into the sentence we will find

  • (the main source of 'irab اعراب is the book of إميل بديع يعقوب called: موسوعة النحو والصرف والإعراب ... the comments/explanations/(partial)translation are of my own)

يا : حرف نداء وتعجب ياء الاستغاثة

It is used for نداء (appealing or calling somebody) and تعجب (amazement, surprise and wonder) and الاستغاثة (calling for aid/help).

From all the above possibilities the closest that would apply here is the amazement (however calling an unnamed individual may also apply)!

so lets complete the 'irab اعراب of the sentence based on this interpretation:

اللام:(لـ) حرف جر زائد مبني على الفتح.

the letter lam (ل) from له is a harf jar حرف جر!

الهاء:(ـه) ضمير متصل مبني على االضم في محل نصب مفعول به لفعل النداء

the letter (ـه) from له is an unknown reference ضمير متصل replacing في محل نصب a maf'ul bihi مفعول به

من: حرف جر زائد.

من is an additional harf jarr حرف جر (which is rather unnecessary as one could say

يا له رجلا

رجل: تمييز منصوب، وعلامة نصبه الفتحة المقدرة منع من ظهورها اشتغال المحل بحركة حرف الجر الزائد.

رجل could basically and easily be declared as the ism al-Majrur as there's a clear diacritic at its end the above shows a deeper explanation. Which discusses the origin of the word which should be رجلا in origin.

  • As stated above this (يا ) is also used for calling and calling somebody due to amazement falls in this category therefore another approach or explanation of 'irab could be ((Source of the quote is the book of عبد الغني الدقر called معجم القواعد العربية page 551ff ... the comments/translation and explanation are of my own):

يا لَهُ مِنْ رَجُلٍ: ومثله: يا لَهُ رَجُلاً، وكلا التعبيرين: يُرادُ به التَّعَجُّب، كأنَّك تقولُ في المعنى: ما أعْظَمه رَجُلاً أو مِنْ رَجُلٍ.
What a man: Yaalahu min rajul(in) يا لَهُ مِنْ رَجُلٍ and similarly: Yaalahu rajul(an) يا لَهُ رَجُلاً.
Both expressions are used to express amazement. As if one would say: What a great man he is: Ma 'adhamahu rajul(an) or min rajul(in).

إعْرابُه: the 'irab goes as follows:

"يا" حرفُ نِدَاءٍ والمُنادَى مَحْذُوفٌ، والتَّقْدير: يا عَجَباً له، أوْ إنها: حرفُ تَنْبيه، يا is used for calling and the called individual was skipped. And it comes in the meaning of: "(oh/wow) how amazing he is". Or it could be regarded for use for alarming.

و "له" اللاَّم للتَّعجُب، وهي حرفُ جر،
As for له it contains the letter lam "ل" which is used to express amazement and is also in the function of harf al-Jarr.
والهاء من "له" تَعُودُ على كلامٍ سَابق كأن تَقُول: "جاءَني رَجُلٌ ويا لَهُ مِنْ رَجُل" وهو مُتَعَلَّقٌ بمَحْذُوف تقديره عَجَباً "مِنْ رجل" جار ومجرور ومعناه التمييز مُتَعَلِّق أيْضاً بِمَحْذُوف تَقْدِيرُه عَجَبَاً،
The letter ha'"ه" from له it refers to the prior speech as if one would say: There came a man and what a man: Ja'ani rajul(un) wa yaalahu min rajul(in). And it is related to a skipped word in the meaning of: "Surprising (how)" this man is عَجَباً "" 'Ajaban. As for "مِنْ رجل" it has the function of jaar and majrur and it comes in the meaning of surprising too.
أمّا إعراب "يالَه رجلاً" فمثلها إلاَّ إنَّ "رَجُلاً" تمييز.
"يالَه رجلاً" has the same 'irab except with the fact that "رَجُلاً" is a tamyyeez

as for (I assume that this is rather clear and this part is of my own, but I could improve it certainly)

رائع

it is an adjective نعت n'at and follows the 'irab of the noun it refer to!

Praise and censure in Arabic grammar

Just to complete yeah the sentence is a kind of praise, but it doesn't use the terms of praise (المَدْحُ al-Madh) according Arabic language rules:

  • For praise a praising verb is necessary or a tamyyiz covering the reason/area of praise (characteristic?).
    For example like:

نِعْمَ الرَّجُلُ

using the verb نِعْمَ which may be used to praise and was used in the qur'an in this context (Sahih International translation):

وَوَهَبْنَا لِدَاوُودَ سُلَيْمَانَ ۚ نِعْمَ الْعَبْدُ ۖ إِنَّهُ أَوَّابٌ
And to David We gave Solomon. An excellent servant, indeed he was one repeatedly turning back [to Allah ]. (38:30)

  • As for censure the same sentence would turn to:

بِئْسَ الرَّجُلُ

by using بِئْسَ which expresses the opposite of نِعْمَ.

The qur'an has many quotes of this kind, but let me share a quote from the poetry of abu al-'Ala' al-Ma'arry أبو العلاء المعري‎

بَني آدَمٍ بِئسَ المَعاشِرُ أَنتُمُ وَما فيكُمُ وافٍ لِمُقتٍ وَلا حُبِّ

This peom (rhym) starts with the words (my own translation take it with the necessary care!):
Son's of Adam (the) worst of company you are ... none of you owns fidelity in hate nor love

2 comments

Welcome to Codidact! It looks like you left some parts of the Arabic quotes un-translated (like the fatḥa on the lām). Also, would حرف جر mean preposition? ‭user53100‭ about 1 month ago

@user53100 I'm not familiar with the English terms of Arabic grammar :) ‭Medi1saif‭ about 1 month ago

Sign up to answer this question »