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What determines the present-tense form of a kal verb?

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Most פָּעַל-construction verbs have the פּוֹעֵל form as the masculine singular present tense; for example, לָמַד→‎לוֹמֵד and צָבַע→‎צוֹבֵעַ.

But some פָּעַל-construction verbs have the פָּעֵל form as the masculine singular present tense; for example, שָׁכַן→‎שָׁכֵן and קָרַב→‎קָרֵב.

What determines, for each פָּעַל verb, which form of present tense it has?

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